Satellite image of the Indus River basin in Pakistan and India Photo Credit : WikipediaIndian and Pakistani officials will discuss in New Delhi on Thursday and Friday the Permanent Indus Commission (PIC), established under the Indus Waters Treaty.The PIC is mandated to establish and maintain cooperative arrangements for the implementation of the treaty and to promote cooperation between the two sides in developing the Indus water systems.The 113th meeting of the Commission was held in Pakistan in March last year. The 114th meeting in New Delhi will cover technical grounds.Pakistan has been protesting over the design and construction of two projects – the 330 MW Kishanganga hydroelectric project and the 850 MW Ratle hydroelectric project – by India on the tributaries of the Indus in Jammu and Kashmir.The Indus Waters Treaty was signed in 1960 and involves six rivers: the Beas, Ravi, Sutlej, Indus, Chenab and Jhelum.Brokered by the World Bank, the treaty gave the right to use waters of the first three rivers to India and of the other three rivers to Pakistan.India has said it has the right under the treaty to set up hydropower plants on the tributaries of the rivers flowing through its territory. Pakistan fears this might reduce the water flow into its territory.
Observers generally say that eventually all cars will use some form of electric engine and that means recharging. The more charging opportunity, the more confident customers will be about EV adoptions. While Qualcomm is throwing its competitive hat into the ring with its new charging system, the company does not deny that this is no magic bullet if there is no adequate transport system to accommodate wide deployment. Wireless recharging points embedded in roads to give electric vehicles complete autonomy would be the next phase, allowing drivers to drive and charge at the same time. Qualcomm says pads buried in the motorway can allow EVs to travel longer distances, have smaller batteries, and weigh less. According to Tech-On, the frequency range used for power transmission is 20k-140kHz. The power to be transmitted is 3kW for single phase, 7kW for three phases and 18kW or higher in the case of rapid charging. A home could be set up with the single phase 3kW IPT for charging a car overnight.Many product debuts at CES are regularly criticized by viewers as disappearing into vapor once the show draws to a close, but Qualcomm’s system is scheduled for a more aggressive debut, in the form of a field test in 50 EVs over a two-year trial period.Wireless recharging points will be rolled out across London this year to put the charging system to the test. The testing is supported by Transport for London and Mayor Boris Johnson. The Mayor has showed strong support in promoting EVs. In 2009 he pledged that every Londoner will be no more than one mile from an electric car charge point by 2015. Electric cars get charged wirelessly in London (w/ Video) Explore further The “Qualcomm Halo Wireless Electric Vehicle Charging (WEVC)” technology demonstrated at CES works with a transmitter pad placed near the car’s vehicle pad, which is connected to the car’s battery. Once the car is parked over that pad, the car starts charging. A controller turns alternating current into direct current. An in-car display tells when the car is lined up and when charging has started.The system uses magnetic resonance to couple power from the Base Charging Unit (BCU) to the Vehicle Charging Unit (VCU). “The system works on the principle of a magnetic resistance similar to charging an electric toothbrush,” said Qualcomm’s Joe Barret, a Qualcomm executive. © 2011 PhysOrg.com (PhysOrg.com) — Qualcomm has demonstrated its new wireless power transmission system for electric vehicles (EVs) at the Consumer Electronics Show (CES). The system, including one pad for power transmitting, another for power-receiving, and control unit, uses the inductive transfer method to charge an EV. The chip-maker’s technology, Inductive Power Transfer (IPT), has a technology history that rests with the company that it acquired in November, HaloIPT. The latter, which made a name for itself in developing wireless charging technology for EVs, was a spinoff from the University of Auckland in New Zealand. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: Qualcomm’s HaloIPT tech brings wireless charging for EVs (2012, January 16) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-01-qualcomm-haloipt-tech-wireless-evs.html More information: All images courtesy TechOn.
Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Phys.org) — In a tale worthy of Sherlock Holmes, scientists in the School of Chemistry at the University of Bristol, UK have solved a biochemical mystery that had previously proven elusive for 70 years: How the fungus Talaromyces stipitatus produces stipitatic acid (6), which is a tropolone, one of an atypical group of fungal natural products – that is, small molecules produced by genetically encoded pathways – with a seven-carbon ring. (Most natural products, such as cholesterol or phenylalanine, have five or six carbons in rings.) The researchers used a two-part biosynthetic approach – gene deletion and alternate genetic expression – to investigate the molecular pathway in question. Professor Russell J. Cox, Postgraduate student Jack Davison and other researchers engaged in the study faced several long-standing obstacles to showing that 3-methylorcinaldehyde is the direct product of a fungal nonreducing polyketide synthase (NR-PKS) which most likely appends the methyl group from S-adenosyl methionine during biosynthesis of the tetraketide, and which uses a reductive release mechanism to produce the observed aldehyde. “Gene knockouts have been one of the most useful tools in the toolkit of the biosynthetic chemist,” Cox tells Phys.org, “but knockouts can’t answer complex questions like these. We now make extensive use of heterologous expression – that is, moving the gene to a ‘clean’ host and switching it on.”The scientists then monitor the host organism for the production of new compounds which we isolate and identify. The chemical structure of the new compound tells them a great deal about the chemistry which must have been used to make it. “In this case,” Cox continues, “we showed that the TropA gene encodes a polyketide synthase which makes 3-methylorcinaldehyde. Expression also allows us to do more complex experiments – for example, by truncating or mutating the gene – and in this way we discovered the reductive release mechanism and the fact that the programmed methylation occurs during chain extension rather than after chain-building and ring formation.”Tropolone biosynthesis was one of the longest-standing problems in the field of biosynthesis and some of the most distinguished organic chemists of the last century were fascinated by it, but progress had been very limited. “We realized that combining chemical knowledge with genome sequence data could give us the start we needed,” Cox explains. “We already knew a lot about polyketide biosynthesis in fungi, and this allowed us to narrow down the potential genes involved to just four. We then used chemical knowledge to narrow this further to a single gene cluster.” Proof then came from the knockout and expression studies. Explore further Copyright 2012 Phys.Org All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. More information: Genetic, molecular, and biochemical basis of fungal tropolone biosynthesis, PNAS May 15, 2012 vol. 109 no. 20 7642-7647, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1201469109 Involvement of tspks1 (tropA) in the biosynthesis of methylorcinaldehyde and tropolones in T. stipitatus. PKS domains: SAT, starter unit acyl transferase; KAS, ketosynthase; AT, acyl transferase; PT, product template; ACP, acyl carrier protein; CMeT, C-methyl transferase; R, acyl CoA thiolester reductase. HPLC analysis of tspks1 KO: (A) UV chromatogram at 260 nm for WT T. stipitatus; (B) UV chromatogram at 260 nm for T. stipitatus tspks1 KO. HPLC analysis of tspks1 expression in A. oryzae: (C) UV chromatogram at 293 nm for untransformed A. oryzae; (D) UV chromatogram at 293 nm for A. oryzae expressing aspks1; (E) UV chromatogram at 293 nm for A. oryzae expressing tspks1. Copyright © PNAS, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1201469109 Looking ahead, the team is currently working on systematic methods to express many genes in fungi. “At present this is easy in bacteria, because in bacteria a single promoter can switch on lots of genes in parallel,” notes Cox. “In fungi, however, each gene needs its own promoter, so this has limited progress. In collaboration with our colleagues in the School of Biological Sciences at Bristol we’re developing systems which can express a dozen or so fungal genes in parallel. This will allow the researchers to investigate much more complex systems in the future.In addition, Cox adds, “I do believe that computational biology and chemistry will eventually provide answers to complex questions like this – but at the moment, while computational methods allow us to formulate good questions, lab work is still needed to find the answers. We’re working in an area with very many unknowns, so it’s difficult for computational methods which rely on current knowledge to act predictively with any accuracy. In fact,” notes Cox, “this is a powerful reason why fundamental discoveries are still so important: they’ll form the basis for future predictions.”Cox points out that he and his team will also continue to study the TropB-D enzymes in vitro. “Chemical methods of classical enzymology will allow us to determine their precise mechanisms.”Cox also articulates how comparing the T. stipitatus tropolone biosynthetic cluster with other known gene clusters allows clarification of important steps during the biosynthesis of other fungal compounds, including the xenovulenes, citrinin, sepedonin, sclerotiorin, and asperfuranone. “Fungal genomes generally are much bigger than their bacterial counterparts by roughly 10 times, and they contain many more genes and gene clusters encoding the biosynthesis of complex compounds” he explains. “Barely any of the known fungal gene clusters have been linked to the molecules they must encode. Our work now allows the understanding of a set of genes which encodes the biosynthesis of polyketides followed by oxidative modifications and these occur frequently in fungi. Until now these clusters were mysterious, but now we can – at least partially – begin to understand what they may do. Secondly, knowledge of the gene clusters will allow us to go hunting for new clusters more effectively.” For example, puberulic acid is a potent antimalarial compound, but its gene cluster is unknown – and the team predicts that the cluster should be very similar to the T. stipitatus tropolone gene cluster.In terms of other research and applications that might benefit from their findings, Cox says that understanding biosynthetic pathways is a key strand of the new science of Synthetic Biology. “One can think of the gene clusters and biosynthetic enzymes they encode as building blocks of new biological entities. In the future,” he concludes, “it will be possible to combine the genetic and chemical knowledge of biosynthetic pathways to produce bioactive compounds – such as drugs and agrochemicals – using biology rather than chemistry. This offers huge advantages in terms of sustainability.” Citation: Friendly Fungi: Elucidating the fungal biosynthesis of stipitatic acid (2012, May 18) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-05-friendly-fungi-elucidating-fungal-biosynthesis.html How tropolones synthesized in fungi: 70-year-old chemical mystery solved This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Singer Miley Cyrus has been reportedly ignoring her boyfriend Patrick Schwarzenegger’s phone calls since he returned from his spring break in Cabo.“Patrick has been trying to reach Miley since he’s been back, calling her over and over and she hasn’t been answering his calls,” eonline.com quoted a source as saying.“He’s very upset and is doing everything he can to try resolve things. Patrick is extremely frustrated because he’s been actively trying to be very good and to make this relationship work,” the source added.Patrick was photographed getting cozy with a bikini girl during his vacation. He denied rumours that he cheated on Miley Cyrus.“Omg. It’s one of my best friends girlfriend… Would NEVER do anything against my GF… Girls have guy friends and guys have friends that are girls,” he said speaking against the rumours sparked by their pictures.
Free Webinar | Sept 5: Tips and Tools for Making Progress Toward Important Goals June 24, 2014 For all its good, sometimes advances in technology can create new forms of paranoia. Take drones for example. They can be used for taking selfies (“dronies”) or walking the dog, or perhaps someday to deliver goods to-door-door. On the flip side, they can and have been used by the military to spy on and attack people.For those who fear being targeted by anyone — military, private organization or civilian — with a drone, there’s one startup that wants to ease your anxieties. Enter: Domestic Drone Countermeasures (DDC). The group has a Kickstarter page where it describes the threat drones pose and the solution the company has developed.”Drones are becoming more capable all the time and this is why it’s alarming,” the Oregon-based startup says. “They fly with payloads like still cameras, video cameras, infrared detectors, thermal detectors, among other things, and they are already being used for surveillance.Related: This Tiny, Whip-Tailed Robot Can Administer Meds Anywhere In the Body”In the past year,” the company continues, “we developed hardware that can detect drones and have filed patents to safeguard our technology.”The anti-drone system consists of three boxes: a primary command and control module and two detection sensor nodes. Basically, these boxes use a simple Wi-Fi connection to create a mesh grid network that can detect drones flying nearby. When a drone is detected, the system can either sound an alarm or send a notification to a mobile device.For a look at how it works, here’s a video:Related: A ‘Smart’ Cup That Knows What You’re Drinking — And Counts the CaloriesThe command and control module can communicate with nodes up to 200 feet away, the company says. The nodes can usually detect drones within 50 feet in all directions. So, the more nodes that are installed in an area, the larger the detection grid becomes. The DDC’s anti-drone system is not equipped to counter military drones, which “fly too high and are too sophisticated,” the company says. “Our intent is to keep your privacy safe from your neighbors and people you may not know who are flying small drones near your home or office. The Personal Drone Detection Systems are intended to counter small, personal drones with cameras and other sensors that are not being regulated.”The DDC’s Kickstarter page is aiming to raise $8,500 over the next 21 days. So far, backers have pledged only about $1,400. DDC says it aims to start shipping the system by May 2015.Related: A Venture Capital Firm Just Named an Algorithm to Its Board of Directors 3 min read Attend this free webinar and learn how you can maximize efficiency while getting the most critical things done right. Register Now »