Source:https://canal.ugr.es/noticia/obesity-and-food-restrictions-proven-to-be-associated-with-less-food-enjoyment/ Reviewed by Alina Shrourou, B.Sc. (Editor)Nov 13 2018Researchers from the University of Granada (UGR) belonging to the Mind, Brain and Behavior Research Center (CIMCYC, from its name in Spanish) and the Faculty of Business and Economics have proven that adolescents who suffer from obesity feel less food enjoyment than those who have a normal weight. In addition, their work reveals that even trivial restrictions on food intake (that is, temporary diets) are associated with a reduction in pleasure.For this work, published in the journal Food Quality and Preference, a large sample of 552 adolescents between 11 and 17 years old from several high schools in Granada has had their emotional reactions analyzed during the visualization of images of sweet foods.Related StoriesResearchers propose new avenue in the search for anti-obesity drugsSupervised fun, exercise both improve psychosocial health of children with obesityNew technique reduces postoperative deficit of oxygen in the blood in patients with morbid obesityThus, the researchers observed that those adolescents who reported different types of dietary restrictions (different types of diet, dieting very often, skipping breakfast, eating less frequently, etc.), along with those who were obese and those who had unhealthy behaviors unrelated to food (such as smoking or having insufficient sleep), felt less pleasure, attraction and desire to eat the highly palatable foods they were looking at (images of sweets, donuts, ice‑creams, chocolate crêpes, etc.).As explained by Laura Miccoli, main author of this study, “adolescence, typically associated with greater body dissatisfaction, is a key stage for the development of risky eating behaviors, related both to uncontrolled restrictions on food intake -which may lead to to the development of eating disorders- and with the stabilization of overweight and obesity.” Hence the importance of studies that approach both food‑related disorders from an integrative perspective.A pioneering studyNot in vain, the research led by the UGR is the first study that has examined the adolescents’ emotions toward sweet food cues based on a constellation of risk behaviors, related to both obesity and eating disorders.In the light of the results obtained, the UGR scientists point out that those adolescents who feel more pleasure or enjoyment when eating “have a healthy relationship with food, and this pleasure may be a possible protective factor against eating and weight‑related disorders.”Therefore, “consistent with recent prevention strategies, it is important to change the perspective on the enjoyment of food with respect to the prevention of obesity, banishing the idea that we should avoid the pleasure of eating. On the contrary: we should take advantage of it, and make food enjoyment -the ‘slow food movement’- a tool for healthy eating,” Miccoli points out.
Source:https://news.illinois.edu/view/6367/775169 Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Apr 17 2019Oxidants found within living organisms are byproducts of metabolism and are essential to wound-healing and immunity. However, when their concentrations become too high, inflammation and tissue damage can occur. University of Illinois engineers have developed and tested a new drug-delivery system that senses high oxidant levels and responds by administering just the right amount of antioxidant to restore this delicate balance.The findings are published in the journal Small.Many pharmaceuticals include specialized polymers and particles that control the timing or concentration of the drug released once administered, the researchers said. However, these additives can hamper crystallization during the manufacturing phase of some drugs – like antioxidants – causing them to dissolve in the body in an uncontrolled manner.”We saw an opportunity here to develop a different kind of drug-delivery system that could sense the level of oxidant in a system and respond by administering antioxidant as needed,” said chemical and biomolecular engineering professor and study co-author Hyunjoon Kong.Kong and his team found a way to assemble crystals of catechin – the bright green antioxidant found in green tea – using a polymer that can sense when oxidant concentrations become too high. The researchers tested the responsiveness of the resulting catechin crystal-containing polymer in the common freshwater planktonic crustacean Daphnia magna, the water flea.”Heart rate is an indication of the extent to which potentially toxic chemicals influence physiology in water fleas,” Kong said. “Daphnids are often used to monitor environmental impacts on ecological systems, and because their hearts are similar to those of vertebrates, they are also used to evaluate the efficacy of cardioprotective drugs.”Related StoriesChronic inflammation removes motivation by reducing dopamine in the brainCancer incidence among children and young adults with congenital heart diseaseStudy measures antioxidant levels in edible insectsThe researchers exposed the daphnids to water contaminated with sublethal concentrations of the natural oxidant hydrogen peroxide while monitoring their heart rate. They found that the daphnids’ mean heart rates dropped from 348 to 290 and 277 beats per minute, depending on the concentration of hydrogen peroxide used.When the team added the new catechin crystal assembled with polymer to the experiment, the water fleas eventually recovered a close-to-normal heart rate.Beyond the potential pharmaceutical uses for the new polymer, Kong’s group is looking into its use for curtailing the impact of highly oxidizing chemicals in natural waterways.”Hydrogen peroxide is often used to clean water fouled by excessive algae, and this raises concern about how the oxidant may be affecting living organisms in water,” he said. “We think this new antioxidant-delivery system could be used to address the problem of over-oxidized natural waters.”The researchers plan to push ahead with developing the polymer for pharmaceutical and environmental uses. “This study proved a concept, but we have more work to do,” Kong said. “There is concern over the safety of the specific polymer we used – polyethylenimine diselenide – but we are getting close to finding a viable replacement.”
Those who used a vitamin D supplement, were less likely to be vitamin D deficient as may be expected, but supplement use was low (4.4%) and, therefore, food fortification and other strategies need to be considered at policy level for older populations.” Reviewed by Alina Shrourou, B.Sc. (Editor)Jun 13 2019Over a quarter of adults aged 50+ are deficient in vitamin D according to researchers from Trinity College Dublin who announced their findings today (Thursday, June 13th). Over half (57%) had inadequate serum vitamin D levels, of which 26% were classed as vitamin D deficient. Vitamin D has a known role in bone health, with growing evidence for beneficial effects on muscle strength and other non-skeletal outcomes. The study was recently published in the international, peer-reviewed journal Nutrients.Better understanding of factors that contribute to vitamin D deficiency is needed to identify people most at-risk. Determinants of deficiency identified in this new study were female gender, advanced age (80+ years), smoking, non-white ethnicity, obesity and poor self-reported health. Researchers therefore identified a profile of older people more likely to be at risk of vitamin D deficiency. Being of a healthy weight, retired, engaging in regular vigorous physical activity, vitamin D supplement use, sun travel in past 12 months and summer season were positive determinants, and therefore potentially protective factors against vitamin D deficiency in older people.The findings were based on 6004 midlife and older adults, living at Northern latitudes (England, 50-55oN) derived from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Since UVB radiation (sunlight) is a known determinant of vitamin D status, this was investigated. Interestingly, residents in the South of England had a reduced risk of deficiency, compared with the North, even after adjustment for socioeconomic and other predictors of vitamin D status.This new research demonstrates that vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in older adult populations living at Northern latitudes and highlights the importance of public health strategies throughout midlife and older age to achieve optimal vitamin D status.Related StoriesSunscreen benefits can be obtained without compromising vitamin D levelsVitamin D deficiency at birth increases risk of high blood pressure in childrenVitamin D could extend lifespan of cancer patientsAssociate Professor in Nutrition at Trinity College, Maria O’Sullivan commented ‘Our study identified factors associated with vitamin D deficiency, including being aged 80+ years, obesity and sedentary lifestyles; all of which are increasing traits in western populations. Furthermore, this is one of the few studies to highlight the importance of non-white ethnicity in vitamin D deficiency in a large study of aging. The findings are valuable in developing targeted strategies to eliminate vitamin D deficiency (at 30nmol/L) in older populations’.First Author Dr Niamh Aspell, who conducted the study as part of her PhD at Trinity said: Source:Trinity College DublinJournal reference:Aspell, N. et al. (2019) The Prevalence and Determinants of Vitamin D Status in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Results from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Nutrients. doi.org/10.3390/nu11061253. Co-Author and Trinity Research Fellow Dr Eamon Laird, said: The high rates of deficiency are similar to rates seen in other high latitude countries such as Ireland. However, other more northern countries such as Finland have implemented a successful vitamin D fortification policy which has all but eliminated deficiency in the population. Such a policy could easily be implemented in the UK and Ireland.”
Explore further France is ready to consider cutting its stake in Renault in the interests of consolidating the automaker’s alliance with Nissan, Finance Minister Bruno Le Maire said Saturday. © 2019 AFP This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Renault tries to reassure partner Nissan on Fiat plans Citation: France ready to cut Renault stake to shore up Nissan partnership: minister (2019, June 8) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-06-france-ready-renault-staketo-shore.html Le Maire said Renault should concentrate on forging closer ties with Nissan before seeking other alliances He was speaking in Japan after Italian-US carmaker Fiat Chrysler pulled the plug on its proposed merger with Renault, saying negotiations had become “unreasonable” due to political resistance in Paris.In an interview with AFP on the sidelines of the G20 finance ministers meeting in Japan, Le Maire said Paris might consider reducing the state’s 15-percent stake in Renault if it led to a “more solid” alliance between the Japanese and French firms.”We can reduce the state’s stake in Renault’s capital. This is not a problem as long as, at the end of the process, we have a more solid auto sector and a more solid alliance between the two great car manufacturers Nissan and Renault,” he told AFP.Last week, FCA stunned the auto world with a proposed “merger of equals” with Renault that would—together with Renault’s Japanese partners Nissan and Mitsubishi Motors—create a car giant spanning the globe. The combined group would have been by far the world’s biggest, with total sales of some 15 million vehicles, compared to both Volkswagen and Toyota, which sell around 10.6 million apiece.But the deal collapsed suddenly on Thursday, with FCA laying the blame at the door of Paris. “It has become clear that the political conditions in France do not currently exist for such a combination to proceed successfully,” FCA said in a statement.Le Maire said Renault should concentrate on forging closer ties with its Japanese partner Nissan before seeking other alliances.Things need to be done “in the right order…. First the alliance (between Nissan and Renault) should be consolidated and then consolidation (more generally) and not one before the other.””Otherwise, everything risks collapsing like a house of cards,” he warned.The minister said it would be up to the bosses of Renault and Nissan to decide how to push the alliance forward as ties between the two firms have been strained after the shock arrest of former boss Carlos Ghosn.Renault is pushing for a full merger between the pair but there is deep scepticism of the plan at Nissan.There were varied reactions from the French unions Saturday.”The government is behaving like the agent of the big shareholders, favouring short-term profit to the detriment of the interests of the country,” said Fabien Gache, of the CGT union.Cutting the state’s share in Renault was abandoning its responsibility in the country’s auto industry, he argued.Franck Daout of the CFDT union said it backed a three-way alliance between Renault, Nissan and Japan’s Mitsubishi—but not one between Nissan and Renault until the alliance had reached a “safe and sustainable maturity”.