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4.1 million in payments to tunnel

first_imgThe Limerick toll tunnel. Pic: Brian Arthur/ Press 22.OPERATING profits for Directroute, the company behind the €800m Limerick Tunnel fell to €8.5m last year despite the help of traffic guarantee payments totalling €4.1m made by the state agency, Transport Infrastructure Ireland (TII). The firm saw a drop of 9 per cent in its last accounts filing after the State guarantee payments reduced from €4.4m to €4.1m.To date since its opening, Directroute was paid €34 million under the terms of a public-private partnership (PPP) contract to compensate for the smaller numbers using it. However, toll receipts for 2017 increased from €13.86m to €14.9m, or €40,821 a day.Sign up for the weekly Limerick Post newsletter Sign Up The traffic guarantee payments are made when daily traffic volumes don’t exceed 23,000 and they were put in place at the outset of the project in order to attract consortia to bid to build the scheme.Pre-tax losses for 2017 increased by 19 per cent to €7.6m but the firm said that the largest expense remains interest repayment on the project. Advertisement Print Limerick Ladies National Football League opener to be streamed live NewsBusiness4.1 million in payments to tunnelBy Staff Reporter – August 20, 2018 2999 Facebook Linkedin WhatsApp RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Previous articleShannon flights upNext article3,123 Limerick jobs created by 9 per cent VAT rate Staff Reporterhttp://www.limerickpost.ie center_img Limerick’s National Camogie League double header to be streamed live TAGSbusinesslimerickLimerick City and CountyNews Donal Ryan names Limerick Ladies Football team for League opener Twitter Email Predictions on the future of learning discussed at Limerick Lifelong Learning Festival Billy Lee names strong Limerick side to take on Wicklow in crucial Division 3 clash WATCH: “Everyone is fighting so hard to get on” – Pat Ryan on competitive camogie squads last_img read more

A decadal satellite record of gravity wave activity in the lower stratosphere to study polar stratospheric cloud formation

first_imgAtmospheric gravity waves yield substantial small-scale temperature fluctuations that can trigger the formation of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs). This paper introduces a new satellite record of gravity wave activity in the polar lower stratosphere to investigate this process. The record is comprised of observations of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite from January 2003 to December 2012. Gravity wave activity is measured in terms of detrended and noise-corrected 15 µm brightness temperature variances, which are calculated from AIRS channels that are the most sensitive to temperature fluctuations at about 17–32 km of altitude. The analysis of temporal patterns in the data set revealed a strong seasonal cycle in wave activity with wintertime maxima at mid- and high latitudes. The analysis of spatial patterns indicated that orography as well as jet and storm sources are the main causes of the observed waves. Wave activity is closely correlated with 30 hPa zonal winds, which is attributed to the AIRS observational filter. We used the new data set to evaluate explicitly resolved temperature fluctuations due to gravity waves in the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) operational analysis. It was found that the analysis reproduces orographic and non-orographic wave patterns in the right places, but that wave amplitudes are typically underestimated by a factor of 2–3. Furthermore, in a first survey of joint AIRS and Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) satellite observations, nearly 50 gravity-wave-induced PSC formation events were identified. The survey shows that the new AIRS data set can help to better identify such events and more generally highlights the importance of the process for polar ozone chemistry.last_img read more