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Revolutionary moments

first_imgIs 2011 going to be the year of radical activism? It is when it comes to bread. Students of industrial loaf-making might not torch their bread plants this year, but the arrival of the first major breakthrough in dough processing for many years will at least cause people to sit up and take notice.It’s called the Radical Bread Process and comes from the same organisation that spawned the Chorleywood Bread Process (CBP) Campden BRI, formerly Campden & Chorleywood Food Research Association. The merits of CBP divide opinion as much as Marmite. But what nobody disputes is that it revolutionised breadmaking when it emerged in 1961, to eventually become the dominant method of breadmaking in the UK.Energy inputIn essence, CBP is a no-time dough process that is controlled by the energy input to the dough. The process employs mechanical dough development, which uses high-shear mixing to achieve physical changes in the dough that are traditionally brought about over extended time periods by fermentation. It uses a small amount of added fat and an oxidising agent, usually ascorbic acid.Following mixing, the dough is relaxed and the sheeted and rolled dough is then cut into four pieces, which are turned through 90 degrees when placed in the pan. The result is a fine structure, familiar to anyone who has bought a loaf of wrapped bread.Following demand in the industry for a new process that uses less energy-demanding mixing, more tolerance to raw materials’ variability and reduced product quality variation, the Radical Bread Process was developed and patents have been filed. The major change is the use of lamination currently largely used in pastry-making. This creates layers of dough. The other change is cutting, so the layers align in one direction. The bread loaf obtained by baking this dough exhibits a unique cellular structure.Most gas cells in the developed dough are disk-shaped (oblate) ellipsoids. Dough pieces are placed together in a pan, each piece being oriented in such a way that the polar axis of the ellipsoid gas cells coincides with the length dimension of the pan. During the subsequent leavening, the gas cells become elongated in a vertical direction.In simpler terms, this structure was found to increase the bread crumb’s resistance against tear during spreading. Slices of the loaves are also said to have a very bright appearance, ideal for white bread. What’s more, these loaves have a very regular shape, which should instantly appeal to those industrial producers of sandwich bread.Awaiting trialThe system is not yet on the market and is awaiting a major machinery supplier to run with it. With CBP so well established and the high cost and risks involved in adopting a commercially untried system, at a time when input costs in the industry are especially high, its success will rest on its reception within the industry. Q&A with Gary Tucker, head of baking and cereal processing at Campden BRI Given that this would involve a big investment in machinery for a plant bakery, what would you say is the overriding benefit? “The big benefit is bread quality. This is mostly an improved crumb structure because of around 10% more cells, aligned more in one direction than the swirls of a CBP loaf and, hence, a whiter appearance. Also, the crust sides are straighter because of the cell directional effect, which makes this ideal for sandwiches. Whether this is enough of a draw for bakers to invest is difficult to determine. Money is tight in the food industry, so this would need one of the equipment companies to take the lead, but with the collaboration of some bakers. It may be that Campden BRI can encourage this to happen through funding schemes such as the Technology Strategy Board.How does the mixing stage work?”The ingredients are first hydrated in a standard mixer, which could be Tweedy, spiral or bar mixer. This is just enough to form a dough that can be moved onto the lamination surface. The dough will be under-developed.”How long does each step in the process take?”First mix is about 30 seconds to one minute. Laminations can take 5-10 minutes, depending on how many laminations are required to develop the dough to its optimum condition. A very short relaxation or first proof stage is needed, but this can only be two to three minutes instead of the five to seven minutes usually needed with the CBP. The remaining stages of moulding, final proof and baking are the same as with other bread processes.”Is the total process quicker or slower than CBP?”It takes about the same time, although I suspect that, when scaled up, it will be a bit longer than CBP.”Will this new process change the way people use processing aids such as ascorbic acid or enzymes?”One of the benefits of developing dough with lamination is that the use of minor ingredients will be different. We have not done much work on this area, but we expect the Radical Bread Process to require a different set of improvers, and possibly fewer of them. For example, ascorbic acid will be less important because the dough does not need to be oxidised so quickly as with the CBP.”Would this process require any changes in ingredients or recipe formulation?”Yes, there is much scope for ingredient and process optimisation. There may even be the potential for lower-quality flours to be used for breadmaking, but this still needs to be determined.”When you say potential for lower quality flours, are you talking about protein levels? “Yes, and more specifically the proteins that form gluten when hydrated.”Are there any potential energy reductions?”The mixing stage of CBP is energy intensive, and a lower energy first mix, followed by more gentle lamination, will result in less energy being used. We cannot quantify this on a like-for-like basis, because we have not done the work. However, initial energy monitoring suggests the Radical process will use less than with CBP. I should point out that baking and cooling both consume more energy than mixing, but any savings must be worthwhile.”Do you believe this will ultimately replace CBP?”It’s unlikely to replace CBP, because of the success CBP has achieved. However, for the high-quality bread market there could be a place for this.” The Radical Bread Process in a nutshell l Ingredients are combined into an underdeveloped doughl Dough is subjected to deformation shear by using laminationl The developed dough is cut into piecesl Dough pieces are positioned in a pan so the laminations lie in one directionl Proving, baking and cooling is the same as for pan bread.last_img read more

Letters to the Editor for Monday, Jan. 27

first_imgUse caution when visiting MontrealJust a heads up to those traveling to Montreal, Canada.My daughter and I traveled to Montreal recently and parked in an outside small parking site in Old Montreal.Unfortunately, while seeing Notre Dame and having lunch in a very busy area with lots of people walking around and high rises all around us, her Jeep truck was broken into by the back-passenger window. An iPad, very expensive camera, insulin and other medicines were stolen.City police came, and we have a number of the incident. We went to Home Depot and bought tape and plastic to fix the window.Upon leaving Canada, talking with the officer at the New York border, we told him what took place in Old Montreal. He stated to us that it happens all the time and that Canadians are targeting trucks and New York State vehicles. Yes, we should have booked our hotel and dropped off everything first (lesson learned) and then proceeded to our venture in Old Montreal. It has been suggested that you rent a car if you are going to Canada, especially Montreal, by border patrols. Take heed all. It really spoiled our weekend and has left me feeling very angry.Deborah BowdishSchenectadyCuomo doesn’t care about New YorkersGov. Andrew Cuomo should stay in Puerto Rico and take the Democrats with him (Assembly and Senate). They can have full control there. The laws that are being passed in New York are so far of the rail that they’re killing this state.He should have never gotten a third term; you talk about obstruction and abuse of power. Instead of taking care of this state’s needs, our tax dollars are going elsewhere. New York was once a leader of industrial states, and our ports were doing well with imports and exports. Even the Port of Albany was doing well.Our economy was high due to construction, factories like GE, Ford, Bendix, Barkley Home products, Alco products, Bear Manning, paper mills, CDTA, taxi companies, downtown stores, Sears, Woolworth, Rudnick’s, outlets, soda shops for kids, Ellis Hospital, St. Clare’s Hospital, Bellview Hospital, carpet mills, auto dealerships, etc.What do we have today? Nothing. Cuomo doesn’t care if we have jobs or safety for our kids in school or for a safe state.He lets criminals out of jail to repeat their crimes and wants to disarm the law-abiding citizen.Would you say he has a mental capacity to be a leader? I don’t think so. All of the hunters in this state supported conservation when they bought a firearm, ammo for hunting, target- and competitive shooting. Without the hunters, who is going to take care of our wild animals and keep our woods safe?Claude Rizzicone, Jr.SchenectadyAlbany Civic Theater deserves coverageThe Gazette proclaims itself to be “The Voice of the Capital Region.”Albany has a major role in there being a Capital Region.Albany Civic Theater is in Albany, but The Gazette is too busy, understaffed or whatever else their excuse is for not reviewing Albany Civic Theater’s performances.Consider that Albany Civic Theater has already presented two terrific shows this season.Another, “American Soldiers” coming up starting Jan. 31.Will The Gazette find another excuse for passing on this Albany Civic Theater play, too?John DanielsDuanesburg Categories: Letters to the Editor, OpinionWestinghouse long overdue for a statueTrains were crashing. Brakemen on moving cars were losing life and limbs, until 22-year-old George Westinghouse, in 1868, invented an ingenious system.It allowed the engineer with a lever to safely apply brakes to all cars. The Westinghouse Air Brake remains the global standard.George Westinghouse grew up in Schenectady. He learned invention, manufacturing and marketing in the family Westinghouse Agricultural Works. He served as a shipboard engineer during the Civil War, attended Union College and launched a career with 300 patents and creation of 60 companies. He was scrupulously honest and fair with admiring employees.After Thomas Edison invented the electric light in 1879, he provided DC electricity to nearby customers. George Westinghouse designed lighting for Chicago World’s Fair and an AC system.It transferred high voltage electricity over long distances, starting with Niagara Falls to Buffalo. Westinghouse current continues to power the world.Analyzing the Westinghouse transformer-based AC system required new mathematics, for which Charles Steinmetz gained fame as the Wizard of Schenectady. He also created the electrical engineering program at Union College.Citizen Brian Merriam self-initiated nicely lighted statues of Thomas Edison and Charles Steinmetz on Erie Boulevard, with sponsorship by the Chamber of Commerce. Brian is now leading a team for a George Westinghouse statue for the empty adjacent plaza. A small portion of the Downtown Revitalization Initiative funding can make it an overdue reality.Frank WicksSchenectadyCome together to help pensionersIn the normal stimulus and response of life, there is a generally held convention that one good deed deserves another. Those who give help in a time of need deserve help if the tables turn.It is, therefore, time for the people of Schenectady to recognize and support the 1,100 retires of Saint Clare’s Hospital who served this community for decades and are now in need of help themselves.Over one year ago, they were informed that their retirement fund had failed and that they would not be receiving their pensions.As a result of the pension fund failure, the retires are now enduring severe financial hardships.Many are experiencing limitations to medical care and even nutrition. Some have died waiting for a resolution to this pension tragedy. Unfortunately, the search for a solution to this terrible problem has no end in sight.There are many and complex reasons for this catastrophic situation. However, one thing is certain: the retirees of St. Clare’s Hospital are not responsible for the failure of their pension fund.Every individual citizen, service group, fraternal organization and church group should speak out and demand that Gov. Andrew Cuomo, our legislators, church leaders and former fund managers come together to find a solution to this unnecessary suffering.Apathy in this situation is not an option. We, the citizens of Schenectady, are either part of the solution or we are part of the problem.William M. Vacca, MDNiskayunaThe writer is former chief of medicine at St. Clare’s Hospital.Inaction on climate will make it worseI am a volunteer for Citizens Climate Lobby, a nonprofit organization devoted to addressing the issue of climate change.With so many of the recent climate-related stories pointing to the worsening of climate change around the world (the brush fires in Australia, record heat in parts of Europe, the rapidly accelerating melting of large glaciers — just to name a few), it can be frightening to turn on the news nowadays. In fact, with some climate scientists saying that the worst effects of climate change cannot be avoided no matter what steps we take to address the problem, it can be tempting to ask the question, “Why bother if there is no hope?”Even if the worst effects of catastrophic climate change seem likely, doing nothing is simply not an option.Just about any step we take to mitigate the worsening of carbon dioxide levels or the rise of global temperatures would be beneficial for our children and grandchildren. The air would be cleaner, storms would be less severe, diseases would not spread as quickly, and world economies would not be crippled as quickly. If these seem only like holding actions, maybe so. But you never know when the political will to take effective corrective action will emerge or when new technologies might give us renewed hope. We simply cannot allow our planet to deteriorate unchecked. Doing nothing is not an option.Ross LenetGuilderland More from The Daily Gazette:Foss: Should main downtown branch of the Schenectady County Public Library reopen?EDITORIAL: Beware of voter intimidationEDITORIAL: Thruway tax unfair to working motoristsGov. Andrew Cuomo’s press conference for Sunday, Oct. 18EDITORIAL: Urgent: Today is the last day to complete the censuslast_img read more

Dzeko will not play Matches against Wales and Cyprus?

first_imgCoach of the National team of B&H cannot count on the captain, Edin Dzeko, in the matches against Wales and Cyprus.Two nights ago, Dzeko suffered a knee injury in the match between Roma and Carpi and was replaced at the half-time.As the Italian media claim, together with Keita, Dzeko was subjected to the medical tests that showed the ligament injury in the right knee.After tests, Dzeko came back to the training camp of Roma limping and went to the room for physiotherapy.Roma announced that Dzeko will have to pause for at least three to four weeks and will miss two last qualification matches of B&H against Wales in Zenica on 10th October and Cyprus three days later.(Source: klix.ba/ Photo: krajina.ba)last_img read more