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In Europe, nationalism rising

first_imgOver the past 75 years, many Western nations moved steadily toward cooperation and interconnectedness, as their shared economic and political interests converged during this period called globalization. But the political winds are shifting, and there are signs of a new age of populism and nationalism emerging in Europe, a development that eventually could undermine post-war security and unity.Donald Trump won the 2016 presidential election in part by promising to “drain the swamp” in Washington, D.C., of political elites and to “Make America Great Again,” a broad-brush populist slogan that supported a more isolationist, protectionist, “America First” posture toward the wider world. His campaign rhetoric criticizing some Muslims and Mexicans and his recent efforts to limit immigration and trade have left many analysts wondering whether his presidency could effectively move the country toward a period of ethno-nationalism.Trump’s surprise election has proved a political windfall and an inspirational template to far-right candidates in Europe, as some countries prepare for major elections. These include the Netherlands (March), France (April and May), and Germany (September). These rightist groups predate Trump politically and tie themselves more tightly to nationalism, but they are also happy to ride on the coattails of his victory.Marine Le Pen, the National Front party leader running for president of France, embraces antiglobalization and anti-immigration policies. Both Le Pen and her father, Jean-Marie, the former party leader, lavishly cheered Trump’s election on Twitter, while other European nationalist party figures in the Netherlands, Hungary, and Greece touted his win as a positive sign of things to come. She has promised to “take back” France by withdrawing from the European Union (EU), a move that Trump has applauded, as he did when Britain voted last year to leave that body, rocking the EU to its core. Lately, Le Pen has been rising in the polls as her mainstream electoral opponents have faltered.Other figures on Europe’s far right, including Geert Wilders, founder of the Dutch Party for Freedom, and Nigel Farage, former leader of the United Kingdom Independence Party, which spearheaded Britain’s break with the EU, have met with and supported Trump. Farage dined with Trump last week in Washington, appeared at Trump’s inauguration, and also made several appearances with him during the campaign. Matteo Salvini, leader of Italy’s Northern League, has reportedly offered to help Trump expand his support in Europe.Indeed, some in the Trump administration have embraced the value of a far-right coalition between the United States and Europe. Leading the way is Trump’s chief White House strategist, Stephen Bannon M.B.A. ’85 , the former chairman of Breitbart Media, a pro-Trump online news outlet. Breitbart has been something of a safe harbor for white nationalists, Neo-Nazis, and other digitally savvy right-wing fringe groups. It’s an assertion Bannon appears to agree with, once referring to Breitbart as the “home of the alt-right.” Shortly after the election, Breitbart announced it would expand to France and Germany to help bring Trumpism to audiences there. During a rare public appearance last week, Bannon, widely-seen as Trump’s ideological compass, said their victory made clear that there is a political “movement” afoot, one in which the administration’s “economic nationalist agenda” will help galvanize the Republican Party, and the nation, into “a new political order.” A new salienceAlthough the words populism and ethno-nationalism are often used interchangeably, they actually are distinctly different.“Populism is a way of making political claims that oppose ostensibly ‘corrupt elites’ with ‘the virtuous people,’” said Bart Bonikowski, a Harvard associate professor of sociology who studies populist and nationalist movements.The left often labels big business and banking executives as elites, while the right typically targets the state itself and those who keep it running, like civil servants, bureaucrats, and elected officials, along with academics and other intellectuals, “whereas ethno-nationalism is … a definition of the nation that excludes various ethnic, religious, and racial out-groups,” he said.Because populism is less an ideology than a form of political discourse, it is often attached to a variety of political ideologies, including nationalism.“It’s basically a strategy for mobilizing political support for whatever politicians’ objectives might be,” said Bonikowski. “It so happens that in Europe and the United States and elsewhere … populism attached to ethno-nationalism has gained traction. But that doesn’t mean the two things are the same or that they only occur with one another.”Nationalism can be ethnocentric or primarily civic in focus. Some strains are more inclusive than others, often based on political principles and respect for institutions that rest on subjective identification with a nation. Ethnic-driven nationalism is often about a shared ancestry, religion, and language and a common dissent, said Bonikowski, a resident faculty member at the Minda de Gunzburg Center for European Studies (CES).Despite some public perceptions, populism and ethno-nationalism have not suddenly surged in the United States and Europe since Trump’s ascendancy. Many European nationalist parties have been around for decades, with varying levels of success. In 2015, Hungary and Poland installed hard right, antiglobalization governments.“There’s a good portion of the population that does … have a particular understanding of what America is: a white, Christian America,” says Bart Bonikowski. File photo by Kris Snibbe/Harvard Staff Photographer“I think what’s changed is the salience of these ideas given the … contextual factors: economic crises, persistent inequality stemming out of neoliberalism, demographic change, anxieties associated with terrorism, along with political developments like obstructionism in Washington, [and the] perceived corruption or non-representativeness of the EU governance system,” said Bonikowski. “All of these things have generated some level of anxiety among particularly white, native-born populations and a perceived status loss at the group level among these folks, which then makes both nationalist and populist claims — and, especially, nationalist-populist claims — more resonant and more salient than they had been in the past.”Indeed, Trump first found his political footing in 2011 after he pushed an unfounded, racially tinged accusation popular on the far right that President Barack Obama was born in Kenya and thus was not a legitimately elected president. Trump appeared to stoke divisiveness among his predominantly white supporters and was slow to reject endorsements by white nationalists, including the Ku Klux Klan, critics contended.Yet Trump was backed by 63 million voters in the presidential election, and the vast majority were hardly extremists, but Americans with traditional values who wanted change.“There’s a good portion of the population that does … define the nation in ethno-cultural terms. They’re not all members of neo-Nazi groups, by any stretch of the imagination. They just have a particular understanding of what America is: a white, Christian America.”While well-organized fringe groups wishing to remake the country as a white, nationalist state have long existed on the periphery of American politics and society, the Trump campaign’s advancement of an agenda that sometimes aligns with theirs brought some extremist groups into the mainstream. “They’ve been allowed to be part of the conversation, which they hadn’t before, and they have, in Bannon, an advocate pretty close to power.”Europe emboldenedTrump’s election and Britain’s exit from the EU are “very encouraging” to nationalist groups across Europe, “because for the first time, there’s a shift away from international cooperation, sharing sovereignty, building international relations and organizations, to addressing the sovereign rights of specific countries,” said Grzegorz Ekiert, the Laurence A. Tisch Professor of Government and director of the CES.Both events represent the biggest victories for the populist-nationalist right in many years.“They demonstrated that what most people thought was impossible is actually possible,” said Bonikowski.Rarely have groups on the radical right advanced so far in recent decades.“They’ve certainly been present, and they have won seats in parliaments in national elections, but they have not been in control of governments, they have not been in control of presidencies, they have not made massive impacts on national policies until Brexit and Trump,” he said. “And so I think that certainly emboldens politicians on the far right across Europe, but also across the world. It also gives them some degree of increased legitimacy among their supporters.”Politicians on Europe’s radical right are now looking to Trump to see which tactics and messages work for him and then testing those in their home nations, adding to the sense that there’s a broader nationalist wave rippling around the world.There was enthusiasm in 2004 when the EU opened its doors to 10 additional countries, most from the former Eastern bloc. But it wasn’t long before some in these new member states began stoking an anti-EU, nationalist agenda.“In every country, you have always had people who didn’t like the European Union,” said Ekiert. “In every country, you had people who worried about traditional values, who worried about national sovereignty, who didn’t like the bureaucrats making some decisions, who didn’t like people in their country cooperating with the European Union. But they were lying low for years because, for them, the impetus of the EU enlargement and this liberal vision for the entire continent seemed invincible.”But the global economic crisis of 2008 and 2009 laid that notion to waste.“Now, the crisis for the first time showed that this is not an invincible project, that there is possibility, really, to fight against it. And this was the moment when you saw in many countries in Europe, both West and East, nationalistic, populist forces emerging,” Ekiert said.The reverberations of Trump’s rise to the presidency have been acutely felt in France, where global attention is now focused on a spring presidential election that has seismic implications for the future of the EU, particularly after the decision by British voters to leave provided its own momentum.The National Front’s Le Pen has made no secret of her support for Trump and his antiestablishment message. Although they do differ in some areas, Trump and Le Pen share several populist-nationalist impulses. Both are protectionists who want to tighten the borders, both oppose immigration and criticize Islam, and both seek to restore “law and order,” which many analysts take as an embrace of a more authoritarian society, said Nonna Mayer, a French political scientist, a leading authority on the National Front, and an emeritus director of research at CES.“For her, the victory of a populist leader like Trump is the proof that her ideas are going to win, can win,” she said. “She’s going to use Trump, she’s going to use it as an argument … not only for her own party members, but for the people with whom she wants to make alliances, to say, ‘Look, we are respectable, our ideas have won. They have elected a president of the United States.’ So in that sense, it’s good for her.”Nationalism in France has been on the rise since the 1980s, when the party’s founder, Le Pen’s father, Jean-Marie, won a seat in European Parliament in 1984. Since then, the National Front has tried to position itself against globalization and as the champion of those who seem themselves as the movement’s losers.Le Pen’s growing mainstream success owes much to the affirmative case the party makes to voters, Mayer contends. “At a time where most people don’t believe very much in the capacity of mainstream political parties to do something, they say, ‘Yes, we can. … You just need the guts to do it, and we can do it.’ In a way, they are selling a political dream, wherein all the other parties have failed.”Populist leaders, including Le Pen, tend to oversimplify issues, mislead and exaggerate and sometimes lie about problems and conditions, like the number of immigrants entering France, in order to justify easy solutions, added Mayer, echoing tactics that have proven useful to the Trump camp.Additionally, terrorist attacks in Paris, Nice, and elsewhere in Europe, as well as the flowing stream of refugees, particularly from Syria, offer useful pretexts for anti-immigration policies and regressive sentiments. “All of that justifies, legitimizes parties that say, ‘We must erect walls and then everything will be as it was before,’ she said. “They always sell a golden age of a society that never existed. But it’s also their strength.”“What the French have witnessed, especially since the attacks over the last two years, [has left many feeling] ‘we’re not at home anymore, and these people who are here in our country as guests are totally destroying our quality of life,’” said sociologist Michèle Lamont, the Robert I. Goldman Professor of European Studies.As with Trump, Le Pen’s constituents are often blue-collar voters who’ve seen their earning power decline and feel threatened by the growing diversity in France. They believe the new arrivals, particularly Muslim immigrants and refugees from the Middle East, are leapfrogging over them economically by “‘coming in and stealing our resources,’” said Lamont.“So, for me, the question is more a sense of social displacement and state pecking order, which is manifested both in how people interpret how much the state will distribute and access to material resources in France.”In the United States, where government largesse isn’t as central to daily life, nationalist sentiments among the white working class centers more on “the dynamics of recognition: how much place those various groups are given in social and cultural debates” about things like sexual orientation and public bathrooms, said Lamont. “That’s really viewed as totally out of proportion.”Trump’s election and Britain’s exit from the EU are “very encouraging” to nationalist groups across Europe, noted Grzegorz Ekiert, the Laurence A. Tisch Professor of Government and director of the CES. © 2016 David ElmesLook to the eastTrump’s reception in Eastern Europe has been more “mixed” than in Western Europe largely because of his seeming admiration for Russian President Vladimir Putin and apparent comfort with Russian expansionist interests in a part of Europe that the old Soviet Union controlled for decades, said Ekiert.Still, populist-nationalism on the far right has blossomed in Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, and Croatia as resentment of the EU’s power brokers in Brussels has grown.“The paradox of this is that these were the most advanced countries in Eastern Europe. Poland, for the last 25 years, was considered to be an incredible success story,” said Ekiert. “So what this tells us is … this is not about the ‘losers of globalization.’ There are no losers of globalization in Poland. The Polish society benefited across the board from enlargement in quite incredible ways … so this is not about economic pain, this is not about marginalization, and so on. This is clearly about country” and cultural modernization.“The last 30 years was a period of very dramatic cultural change, and the traditional societies of Eastern Europe were not really ready to embrace that change, and we see the reaction to it now. It was too much, too soon,” said Ekiert.“It was much easier to get used to iPhones and good cars and all those other things that go with material modernization. But it was much more difficult to really make sense on the cultural level how far those societies” had evolved, he said. “So, the questions of what’s going to happen with religion, what’s going to happen with traditional families, what’s going to happen with traditional curricula in schools, how do we think about the history of our country” left many feeling unmoored.Powerful forces like the Polish Catholic Church have opposed the EU, viewing the increasingly empty churches in an increasingly secular Western Europe as an existential threat, Ekiert added.After decades of Soviet domination and little internal ethnic diversity, nationalist sentiments in Eastern Europe center mostly on notions of patriotism and national identity. It’s only in the last two decades that anti-immigration has emerged as a significant part of nationalist discourse, said Ekiert.An influx of immigrants and a later quota plan from the EU that refugees should be evenly distributed among member states set off a “hysterical” reaction across Eastern Europe. Countries normally at odds banded together and refused to comply, offering aggressive language that reinforced old prejudices and stoked violence against foreigners, as well as students and tourists in Poland and Hungary.What’s likely next Whatever happens in the elections in the Netherlands, France, and Germany, the broader “dangers” that the success of Europe’s far right parties pose are “just vast,” said Bonikowski. The biggest worry is the potential erosion of democratic laws, and shared norms and beliefs.“It really changes what’s acceptable, it changes geopolitical calculations, it creates all kinds of risks that have not been there previously. You don’t need every single country to be controlled by a nationalist-populist politician for us to be in some serious trouble,” he said. “It’s enough to have a couple, and especially the powerful ones.”A win by Le Pen would “create chaos” because she has promised to take France out of the EU, whose three strong stool legs have been Britain (leaving), France (in question), and Germany. “If she wins, we’re all in trouble,” added Ekiert.But even if she loses, that is not the end of the story. Other events threaten to further destabilize the EU.“Europe is at a critical point in this game today, and the trans-Atlantic relations between Europe and the U.S., and then the relations between Europe, Russia, China, and Turkey, are at the center of everything,” said Ekiert.The first and foremost danger is if Putin, under the pretext of protecting ethnic Russians living in the region, takes action in Estonia or the Baltic republics as a test of NATO’s commitment, and especially the U.S.’s willingness, to defend all of its members.Additionally, the war in Ukraine, the Syrian civil war, unrest in North Africa, and Turkey’s rapid move away from Europe could prompt Turkish President Recep Erdogan to release a million Syrian refugees in Turkey into Europe and put the EU on thin ice.“That kind of ‘burning neighborhood’ is a very significant destabilizing factor,” said Ekiert. “If the European Union were as strong as was the case several years ago, we would probably see much more aggressive action, with a lot of economic aid, to stabilize those countries. But now the European Union is in survival mode and not ready for any adventures outside the EU borders.”In addition to the geopolitical crises, a likely shift in trans-Atlantic relations under the Trump administration, Europe’s lingering economic and banking woes, questions about fundamental European institutions — including the entire EU project itself ???? are swirling about just as the radical right political parties are rising in nearly every country, said Ekiert.“It looks like a perfect storm in all possible dimensions.”last_img read more

Liverpool winning streak ends with draw at United

first_imgBy Simon EvansMANCHESTER, England (Reuters) – Manchester United ended Liverpool’s 100 percent start to the Premier League season — and their 17 match winning streak — with a 1-1 draw at Old Trafford on Sunday.But there was disappointment for Ole Gunnar Solskjaer’s side who were five minutes away from a surprise win before Liverpool substitute Adam Lallana grabbed an equaliser for the league leaders to cancel out Marcus Rashford’s 36th minute opener.It was yet another Premier League game with VAR controversy which will continue to provoke debate about the system introduced this season.The result cuts Liverpool’s lead over second-placed Manchester City to six points and Juergen Klopp’s side were far from their best.“We were good enough for a point,” said Klopp, “We were in charge 100% towards the end. We wanted a different result but to do that you have to play better.”United are now unbeaten in their last seven home games against Liverpool and while their battling display will boost morale, the 20-times champions are adrift in 13th place, 15 points behind the leaders.“We have a team that works for each other and maybe this will turn their season,” said Solskjaer.“They are disappointed because they feel we should have won. Our fans showed they can see what’s happening and we will get there.”It has been many years since United went into this fixture as clear underdogs with just two victories from their opening eight games.On paper, the United line-up matched up poorly against Klopp’s side, especially with Paul Pogba out injured and Anthony Martial restricted to the bench as he returned from an injury lay-off.Liverpool were without Egyptian striker Mohamed Salah, who was ruled out with an ankle injury with Divock Origi given a rare start alongside Roberto Firmino and Sadio Mane in attack while Brazilian keeper Alisson Becker returned from injury.Solskjaer’s headaches were added to when defender Axel Tuanzebe was injured during the warm-up, meaning Argentine Marcos Rojo had to be thrust into the starting 11.But from the outset, United worked tirelessly, chasing down the ball in midfield and grew in belief while Liverpool never found their usual standard of fluency and invention.Rashford scored after turning home a superb low cross from Dan James after the speedy Welshman had broken down the right flank.The goal was subject to a video review and allowed to stand despite Liverpool claims that Victor Lindelof had fouled Origi at the start of the move.Liverpool thought they had got level, two minutes before the interval, when Mane outfought Lindelof and poked home but the VAR review showed the Senegalese forward had handled the ball.But Klopp’s side, who had struggled to find openings, finally broke through in the 85th minute when Lallana slotted home Andy Robertson’s low cross.last_img read more

Jeffrey Epstein’s autopsy consistent with homicide not suicide, expert says

first_imgA renowned forensic pathologist says Jeffrey Epstein may not have taken his own life.In an exclusive interview with Fox & Friends, Dr. Michael Baden said Epstein’s injuries appeared more consistent with homicidal strangulation rather than suicidal hanging.Epstein’s brother hired New York City’s former chief medical examiner to observe his brother’s autopsy after he was found hanged in his Manhattan lockup in August.Chief Medical Examiner Dr. Barbara Sampson ruled his death a suicide “after careful review of all investigative information, including complete autopsy findings.”Baden, however, disputed those findings noting in Wednesday’s interview that what he found was something “he’s not seen in a suicidal hanging in 50 years. ”After reviewing the autopsy, Dr. Baden said he found two fractures on the side of Epstein’s larynx, and another fracture on a bone above the Adam’s Apple emphasizing that both appeared “extremely unusual.”The 66-year-old millionaire’s death came about a month after his arrest on federal sex trafficking charges, and just days after he was taken off suicide watch.Epstein’s case was highly publicized while he was alive, and his death has not been any different as a whirlwind of allegations and conspiracy theories continue to go viral.This story is developing.last_img read more

Ex-Miccosukee cop is sentenced after forcing teens to strip naked

first_imgA former Miccosukee Police officer has been found guilty of forcing two teens to strip naked during a traffic stop back in 2016.Michael Martinez pulled over 18-year-old Kyle Shoulta, and Remy Riley near mile marker 48 of Alligator Alley, for running a stop sign. He then offered them a deal to run naked and avoid jail time.Martinez appeared in court and was found guilty on two counts of extortion and two counts of unlawful compensation. He has been sentenced to 10 years.last_img

Man charged with animal cruelty after video shows him hitting dog on South Beach

first_imgA man was caught on tape trying to kill a dog near Ocean Drive and 13th Street, Sunday afternoon.The video shows a man choking the dog with the leash, and yanking him to the ground.Witnesses were screaming and crying in hopes that the man would stop. Others stepped in and held down the dog’s attacker, 51-year-old Louis Sepulveda, until police arrived.Sepulveda was arrested and is facing a felony charge of animal cruelty with intent to injure or kill.There is currently no word on the dog’s well-being.Full video and story on wsvn.com.,A man was caught on tape trying to kill a dog near Ocean Drive and 13th Street, Sunday afternoon.The video shows a man choking the dog with the leash, and yanking him to the ground.Witnesses were screaming and crying in hopes that the man would stop. Others stepped in and held down the dog’s attacker, 51-year-old Louis Sepulveda, until police arrived.Sepulveda was arrested and is facing a felony charge of animal cruelty with intent to injure or kill.There is currently no word on the dog’s well-being.Full video and story on wsvn.com.last_img read more

Shooting in South Beach Leaves Police Officer Stabbed, Another Person Injured

first_imgPolice add the other person was hospitalized in critical condition.Investigators have not revealed what prompted the shooting.This is a developing story. A shooting in Miami’s South Beach neighborhood has left a police officer injured with a stab wound and another person hospitalized.Miami Beach police tweeted that the shooting occurred on Saturday night on Ocean Drive.The injured officer is reportedly in stable condition.last_img

Florida man accused of filming coworkers in day care bathroom

first_imgSt. Petersburg police say a cafeteria worker at Lew Williams Center for Early Learning is facing a video voyeurism charge.30-year-old Julin Nichols was arrested on Monday after co-workers say they found a cellphone taped under the sink and facing the toilet in a bathroom.Police didn’t say whether any children were involved in the investigation, or how many people were recorded by the phone.Officials are still investigating the case.last_img